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About Us

Personnel Profiles

Dr Lynley Wallis - Profile

Dr Lynley Wallis is the Principal Archaeologist with WHC. She has previously held research and teaching positions at the University of Queensland, Flinders University, James Cook University and the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. In addition, she was also a Senior Heritage Officer with the Heritage Branch of the ACT Government from 2002-2003.

She has more than 15 years experience in undertaking both small and large scale archaeological research and cultural heritage management projects in Western Australia, South Australia, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory and Queensland, and also has international experience working in Thailand and Chile. Lynley is proficient in GIS mapping systems and provides clients with detailed and accurate mapping so they confidently proceed with planning their projects.

Lynley has published widely in national and international journals, and has many years experience teaching archaeology and cultural heritage management to Aboriginal community members, undergraduate and postgraduate university students. She is an editorial advisory board member for the journals Australian Archaeology, Archaeology in Oceania and Queensland Archaeological Research.

Her formal qualifications include a Doctor of Philosophy from the Australian National University (2001) and a Bachelor of Science with First Class Honours from the University of Western Australia (1994).

Lynley has a number of professional affiliations and registrations with relevant associations including the Australian Archaeological Association (AAA), the Australasian Quaternary Association (AQUA), the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) and full membership with the Australian Association of Consulting Archaeologists Inc. (AACAI). Since 2012 she has been the Co-Editor of the flagship journal of AAA, Australian Archaeology, and has also served in the past as the National President (2009-2011) and as the State Representative for South Australia (2006–2009). She is currently the National President of AACAI, and is on the Editorial Board of the South Australian Chamber of Mines and Energy (SACOME).

Published Papers

L.A. Wallis and S.J. Collins 2013 Just passing through: Archaeological investigations of a late Holocene open site in the Mitchell Grass Downs, inland northwest Queensland. Queensland Archaeological Research 16:45–54.

St George, C., L.A. Wallis, B. Keys C. Wilson, S. Fallon, M. Sumner, S. Hemming and the Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee 2013 Radiocarbon dates for shell midden sites at Long Point in the Coorong, South Australia. Australian Archaeology 77:141–147.

Wallis, L.A. 2013 A comparative study of phytolith assemblages in modern sediments from the Kimberley, Western Australia. Quaternary Australasia 30(2):6–20.

Fullagar, R.L.K. and L.A. Wallis in press Usewear and phytoliths on bedrock grinding patches in north-western Australia. Papers in Honour of Beth Gott. Edited by Lynette Russell, Monash University. (Accepted for publication 29 March 2010).

Connelly, P. and L.A. Wallis 2013 Kar-kar: Mitakoodi Traditional Medicinal Plant Uses of the Cloncurry Region. Mount Isa: Southern Gulf Catchments Ltd.

Wallis, L.A., A. Gorman and H. Burke 2013 The opportunities and challenges of graduate level teaching in cultural heritage management. Australian Archaeology 76.

Pitman, H.T. and L.A. Wallis 2012 The point of spinifex: A review of Aboriginal uses of spinifex grasses in Australia. Ethnobotanical Research and Applications 10:109-131.

Mondal, S., P. Memmott, L.A. Wallis and D. Martin 2012 Physico-thermal properties of Triodia resin bio-polymer. Materials Chemistry and Physics 133(2/3):692-699.

Gamage, H., S. Mondal, L.A. Wallis, P. Memmott, D. Martin, B. Wright and S Schmidt 2012 Indigenous and modern biomaterials derived from Triodia (spinifex) grasslands in Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 60(2):114-127.

Litster, M. and L.A. Wallis 2011 Looking for the proverbial needle? The archaeology of Australian colonial frontier massacres. Archaeology in Oceania 46:105-117.

Wade, V., L.A. Wallis and Woolgar Valley Aboriginal Corporation 2011 Aboriginal rock art sites on Middle Park Station, inland northwest Queensland. Australian Archaeology 72:23-34.

Disspain, M., L.A. Wallis and B. Gillanders 2011 Developing baseline data to understand environmental change: a geochemical pilot study of archaeological otoliths from the Coorong, South Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science 38:1842-1857.

Wallis, L.A. and A.C. Gorman 2010 A time for change? Indigenous heritage values and management practice in the Coorong and Lower Murray Lakes region, South Australia. Australian Aboriginal Studies 2010(1):57-73.

Moffat, I., L.A. Wallis, M.W. Hounslow, K. Niland, K. Domett and G. Trevorrow 2010 Geophysical prospection for Late Holocene burials in coastal environments: A pilot study from South Australia. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 25(5):1-21.

Wallis, L.A., B. Keys, I. Moffat and S. Fallon 2009 Gledswood Shelter 1: initial radiocarbon dates from a Pleistocene aged rockshelter site in northwest Queensland. Australian Archaeology 69:71-74.

Alam, A.K.M.M., S. Xie and L.A. Wallis 2009 Reconstructing Holocene palaeoenvironments in Bangladesh: Phytolith analysis of archaeological soils from Somapura Mahavihara site in the Paharpur area, Badalgacchi Upazila, Naogaon District, Bangladesh. Journal of Archaeological Science 36:504-512.

Sim, R. and L.A. Wallis 2008 Northern Australian offshore island use during the Holocene: the archaeology of Vanderlin Island, Sir Edward Pellew Group, Gulf of Carpentaria. Australian Archaeology 67:95-106.

Wallis, L.A., I. Moffat, G. Trevorrow and T. Massey 2008 Locating places for repatriated burial: a case study from Ngarrindjeri ruwe, South Australia. Antiquity 82:750-760

Moffat, I., L.A. Wallis, A. Beale and D. Kynuna 2008 Trialing geophysical techniques in the identification of open Indigenous sites in Australia: A case study from inland northwest Queensland. Australian Archaeology 66:60-63.

Wiltshire, K.D. and L.A. Wallis 2008 A history of Aboriginal heritage protection legislation in South Australia. Journal of Environment Planning and Law 25(2):98-114.

Veth, P., K. Aplin, L. Wallis, T. Manne, T. Pulsford, E. White and A. Chappell 2007 The Archaeology of Montebello Islands, North-West Australia: Late Quaternary foragers on an arid coastline. BAR International Series 1668.

Hemming, S., D. Rigney, L.A. Wallis, T. Trevorrow, M. Rigney and G. Trevorrow 2007 Caring for Ngarrindjeri Country: collaborative research, community development and social justice. Indigenous Law Bulletin 6(27):6-8.

Domett, K.M., L.A. Wallis, D. Kynuna, A. Kynuna and H. Smith 2006 Late Holocene human remains from northwest Queensland, Australia: Archaeology and palaeopathology. Archaeology in Oceania 41:25-36.

Taylor, L., G.K. Ward, G. Henderson, R. Davis and L.A. Wallis (eds) 2005 The Power of Knowledge The Resonance of Tradition. Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra.

Hiscock, P. and L.A. Wallis 2005 Pleistocene settlement of deserts from an Australian perspective. In P. Veth, M. Smith and P. Hiscock (eds) Desert Peoples: Archaeological Perspectives. Blackwell Publishers, pp. 34-57.

Wallis, L.A., D. Smith and H. Smith 2004 Recent archaeological surveys on Middle Park Station, northwest Queensland. Australian Archaeology 59:43-50.

Wallis, L.A., H. Smith and D. Smith 2004 Investigations of Aboriginal hearth sites along the Flinders River, inland northwest Queensland. The Artefact 27:59-76.

Wallis, L.A. 2003 An overview of phytolith production patterns in selected northwest Australian flora. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 125:210-48

Wallis, L.A. 2003 Phytoliths and other microfossils in tufa formations as a novel source of palaeoenvironmental data. In D.M. Hart and L.A. Wallis (eds) Proceedings of the State-of-the-Art in Phytolith and Starch Research in the Australian, Pacific and South East Asian Regions. pp.31-42. Pandanus Press: The Australian National University

Wallis, L.A. and D.M. Hart 2003 The history of phytolith researchers in Australia. In D.M. Hart and L.A. Wallis (eds) Proceedings of the State-of-the-Art in Phytolith and Starch Research in the Australian, Pacific and South East Asian Regions. pp.1-17. Pandanus Press: The Australian National University.

Clarkson, C. and L.A. Wallis 2003 The search for El Nino/Southern Oscillation in archaeological sites: Recent results from Jugali-Ya rockshelter, Wardaman Country. In D.M. Hart and L.A. Wallis (eds) Proceedings of the State-of-the-Art in Phytolith and Starch Research in the Australian, Pacific and South East Asian Regions. pp.137-52. Pandanus Press: The Australian National University.

Hart, D.M. and L.A. Wallis (eds) 2003 Proceedings of the State-of-the-Art in Phytolith and Starch Research in the Australian, Pacific and South East Asian Regions. Pandanus Press: The Australian National University.

Wallis, L.A. 2002 AMS dates and palaeoenvironmental data from mud wasp and bird nests at Carpenter’s Gap 1, northern Australia. Australian Archaeology 55:35-9.

Wallis, L.A. 2001 Environmental history of northwest Australia based on phytolith analysis at Carpenter’s Gap 1. Quaternary International 83-85:103-17.

Bowdery, D.B., D. Hart, C. Lentfer and L.A. Wallis 2001 A universal phytolith key. In J.D. Meunier and F. Colin (eds) Phytoliths: Applications in Earth Science and Human History. pp. 267-78. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema Publishers.

Veth, P., S. O’Connor and L.A. Wallis 2000 Perspectives on ecological approaches in Australian archaeology. Australian Archaeology 50:54-66.

Wallis, L.A. and S. O’Connor 1998 Residues on points from Widgingarri Shelter 2, western Kimberley. In R. Fullagar (ed.) A Closer Look: Recent Australian Studies of Stone Tools, pp.149-178. Sydney: Archaeological Computing Laboratory, School of Archaeology, University of Sydney. Sydney University Archaeological Methods Series 6.

Unpublished Reports

Wallis, L.A. 2013 Provision of Expert Advice for the Rewan 1 Work Area, Arcadia Valley, Central Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for the Karingbal Endorsed Parties and Santos Ltd.

Lowe, K.M. and L.A. Wallis 2013 Ground Penetrating Radar Survey of Possible Aboriginal Burial Sites in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Unpublished report prepared for Nipapanha Community Inc.

Wallis, L.A. 2013 Peer Review of 'WCP216 Archaeological Excavations: Test and Open Area' by Kayandel Archaeological Services. Unpublished report prepared for Wilpinjong Coal Pty Ltd.

Wallis, L.A. and J. Matthews 2013 Salvaged Artefacts from Sections A, B, C and D of the North South Haul Road, Mount Margaret Project, Cloncurry. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. and J. Matthews 2013 Salvaged Artefacts from the E1 Tenement, Mount Margaret Project, Cloncurry. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2013 Inspection of Drill Pads on the Multi-User Rail Loading Facility Site near Cloncurry, October 2012. Unpublished report prepared for Ernest Henry Mining, on behalf of Joint Venture Parties EHM, CuDeco and MMG (commercial-in-confidence).

Wallis, L.A. 2013 (March) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of Additional Areas along the North South Haul Road, March 2013. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012 (December) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of 12 Drill Pads, the Monakoff Haul Road North Route Option and the Monakoff Pit (Southeast Portion), as well as the North-South Haul Road Cooler and Laydown Area, and the Western Drain Infill Area in E1, November - December 2012. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012 (December) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of the Spillway and Haul Road Easement in the Monakoff Tenement, December 2012. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012 (November) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of Select Areas in the Monakoff Tenement, October 2012. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A., J. Barr and T.S. Lim 2012 (October) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of the North-South Haul Road and Monakoff Fence Line, September 2012 (Revised). Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012 (September) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of Select Areas in the E1 and Monakoff Tenements, Mount Margaret Project Area, September 2012. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012 (August) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of Drill Pads in Monakoff East, 26–27 August 2012. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012 (August) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of the Water Dam and Pit Dewatering Evaporation Pond, E1 Tenement, Mount Margaret Project Area, August 2012. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012c (August) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of the West Diversion Drain Containment Line (Survey Area B), and the East Pit and Northwest Corner (Survey Area A) in the E1 Tenement, Mount Margaret Project Area, 23–25 August 2012. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012b (July) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of Select Areas in the E1 Lease, Mount Margaret Project Area, near Ernest Henry Mine, Cloncurry, North Queensland, 26–30 July 2012. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012 (July) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of Areas in the E1 Lease, near Ernest Henry Mine, Cloncurry, North Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Wallis, L.A. 2012 (June) Provision of Expert Advice for Determination of Cultural Heritage Protection Recommendations. Unpublished confidential report prepared for Mount Margaret Mining Pty Ltd and the Mitakoodi People.

Lowe, K.M. and L.A. Wallis 2012 Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Site Assessment of Drill Pads in Petroleum Exploration Tenement ATP974P near Richmond, Northwest Galilee Basin, North Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for Westside Corporation Pty Ltd, though Wallis Heritage Consulting.

Wallis, L.A. 2011 Review of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Clearance for Northern Seismic Exploration Program, Minyango Project (MLA80173), Central Queensland, September 2011. Unpublished confidential report prepared for Blackwater Coal Pty Ltd, though Red Centre Consultancy.

Wallis, L.A. 2011 Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Survey of Transmission Line Easement South of the Flinders Highway between Richmond and Julia Creek, Wanamara People Core Country Claim area, north Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for VisionStream, though Red Centre Consultancy.

Wallis, L.A. 2011 (Oct) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Assessment of 26 Drill Pad Locations for the Teresa Project (MLA 70405 and 70442), Central Queensland: Part I. Unpublished report prepared for Linc Energy Pty Ltd, though Red Centre Consultancy.

Wallis, L.A. 2011 (Aug) Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Survey of Drill Pad Locations for the Teresa Project (MLA 70405 and 70442), Central Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for Linc Energy Pty Ltd, though Red Centre Consultancy.

Wallis, L.A. 2011 Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Site Clearance Trepell Creek, Cannington Mine Site, north Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for BHP Billiton Minerals Pty Ltd, though Wallis Heritage Consulting.

Wallis, L.A. 2011 Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Survey of Drill Pad Locations on Burleigh, Coalbrook, Grampian Valley and Rainscourt Stations, north Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for Linc Energy Pty Ltd, through Red Centre Consultancy.

Wallis, L.A. 2011 Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Survey of Drill Pad Locations near Julia Creek and Richmond, Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for Linc Energy Pty Ltd, through Red Centre Consultancy.

Wallis, L.A. 2011 Final Report on Phytolith Analysis of Sediment Samples from Sites HN-A9 (Jundaru) and HD07 3A PAD13, Pilbara, Western Australia. Unpublished report prepared for Australian Cultural Heritage Management, through Uniquest.

Rosendahl, D. and L.A. Wallis 2010 Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Survey: NW01 and NW02, Richmond, Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for Westside, through Uniquest.

Wallis, L.A. 2010 Preliminary Report on Phytolith Analysis of Sediment Samples from Site HD07 3A PAD 13, Pilbara, Western Australia. Unpublished report prepared for Australian Cultural Heritage Management, through Uniquest.

Wallis, L.A. 2010 Preliminary Report on Phytolith Analysis of Sediment Samples from Site HN-A9 (Jundaru), Pilbara, Western Australia. Unpublished report prepared for Australian Cultural Heritage Management, through Uniquest.

Wallis, L.A. 2010 Final Report on Phytolith Analysis of Plant and Sediment Samples from Djadjiling Rockshelter (Project Code MIB50), Pilbara, Western Australia. Unpublished report prepared for Australian Cultural Heritage Management, through Uniquest.

Wallis, L.A. 2010 Yurbi Ponds Expansion Project, Cannington Mine, Northwest Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for the Mitakoodi Mayi People and BHP Billiton, through Uniquest.

Wallis, L.A. 2010 Aboriginal Archaeological Heritage Survey: Calvale to Stanwell Transmission Line and Bauldercombe to Stanwell Transmission Line. Unpublished report prepared for Powerlink, through Uniquest.

Wallis, L.A. 2010 Preliminary Report on Phytolith Analysis of Plant and Sediment Samples from Djadjiling Rockshelter (Project Code MIB50), Pilbara, Western Australia. Unpublished report prepared for Australian Cultural Heritage Management, through Uniquest.

Wallis, L.A. 2010 Archaeological Expert Opinion – Wyaralong Dam, Southeast Queensland Project. Unpublished report prepared for Queensland Water Infrastructure, through Uniquest.

Wallis, L. A. 2010 Archaeological Expert Opinion – Blunder Road Project. Unpublished report prepared for Brisbane City Council, through Uniquest.

Wallis, L.A. 2010 Ivanhoe Australia Cloncurry Project Area – Yulluna People: Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Technical Advisor’s Report on Fieldwork Conducted 8-10 April 2010. Unpublished report prepared for UQ Cultural and Heritage Unit (through Uniquest), for Ivanhoe Australia.

Wallis, L.A. 2010 Ivanhoe Australia Cloncurry Project Area-Kalkadoon People: Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Technical Advisor’s Report on Possible Dolerite Axe Head Quarry. Unpublished report prepared for UQ Cultural and Heritage Unit (through Uniquest), for Ivanhoe Australia.

Wallis, L.A. and M. Disspain 2008 Archaeological Excavations of Midden Sites at Long Point, April 2008. Unpublished report prepared for the Dapung Talkinyeri Aboriginal Corporation, Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee and Ngarrindjeri Regional Authority Inc.

Wallis, L.A. 2008 Archaeological Excavations at Gledswood 1 Shelter, Northwest Queensland. Unpublished final report prepared for the Woolgar Valley Aboriginal Corporation and Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (Grant Number G2007/7270).

Fullagar, R. and L. Wallis 2008 Use-Wear and Residues on Aboriginal Grinding Patches from the Fortescue Metals Group Rail Construction Corridor Project, Pilbara, WA. Confidential report prepared for Fortescue Metals Group Pty Ltd.

Wallis, L.A. 2008 Residue Samples from the Fortescue Metals Group Rail Construction Project - Phytolith analysis results. Unpublished report to Gavin Jackson P/L on behalf of the Fortescue Metals Group.

Wallis, L.A. 2007a Long Point Indigenous Cultural Heritage Survey: Archaeological Results (Stage One, Section 571). Unpublished report to the Dapung Talkinyeri Aboriginal Corporation.

Wallis, L.A. 2007b Long Point Indigenous Cultural Heritage Survey: Archaeological Results (Stage Two, Section 572). Unpublished report to the Dapung Talkinyeri Aboriginal Corporation and Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee.

Wallis, L.A. 2007c Emergency Salvage Excavation and Reburial of an Old Person at Long Point, Coorong. Unpublished report to the Dapung Talkinyeri Aboriginal Corporation, Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee and Ngarrindjeri Regional Authority.

Wallis, L.A., K. Domett and K. Niland 2007 The Hack’s Point Burial Project; Recording, understanding and protecting an Old People’s Place at the Kurangk, South Australia. Unpublished report prepared for the Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee (NHC), Ngarrindjeri Native Title Management Committee (NNTMC) and Ngarrindjeri Tendi (NT).

Wallis, L.A. 2007 Archaeological Investigations on Bora Station, Northwest Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra (Grant Number G2004/6898) and the Woolgar Valley Aboriginal Corporation.

Wallis, L.A. 2007 Investigations of, and Management Planning for, a Ngarrindjeri Burial Complex at Hack’s Point. Unpublished report prepared for the Ngarrindjeri Lands and Progress Association in relation to the Federal IHP Ngarrindjeri Cultural Heritage Project.

Wallis, L.A., A. Gorman and M. Litster 2006 A Collection of Repatriated Stone Artefacts from the Lake Eyre Region. Unpublished report prepared for George Trevorrow and Reg Dodd.

Wallis, L.A. (ed.) 2006 ARCH3305 Indigenous Archaeology in Australia Field School, Ngarrindjeri Ruwe, 18-29 September 2006: Student Reflective Journals. Unpublished report prepared for the Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee (NHC), Ngarrindjeri Native Title Management Committee (NNTMC) and Ngarrindjeri Tendi (NT).

Wallis, L.A. 2006 An Overview of Archaeological Fieldwork in Northwest Queensland, June 2006. Unpublished report prepared for the Woolgar Valley Aboriginal Corporation.

Wallis, L.A. and S. Hemming 2006 Preliminary Archaeological/Cultural Heritage Field Visit to Sunnyside, River Murray March 2006. Private and confidential unpublished report prepared for the Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee (NHC), Ngarrindjeri Native Title Management Committee (NNTMC) and Ngarrindjeri Tendi (NT).

Wallis, L.A. 2006 Archaeological Assessment of Lot 82 (Piggott Property), Tailem Bend, March 2006. Private and confidential unpublished cultural heritage survey report prepared for the Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee (NHC), Ngarrindjeri Native Title Management Committee (NNTMC) and Ngarrindjeri Tendi (NT).

Wallis, L.A. and S. Hemming 2006 Assessment of Lot 82 (Piggott Property), Tailem Bend, March 2006. Unpublished cultural heritage survey report prepared for the Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee (NHC), Ngarrindjeri Native Title Management Committee (NNTMC), Ngarrindjeri Tendi (NT) and Mr Piggott.

Wallis, L.A., S. Hemming and C. Wilson 2006 The Warnung (Hack’s Point) Old People’s Places Project: A collaborative approach to archaeological survey, research and management planning. Confidential report prepared for the Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee (NHC), Ngarrindjeri Native Title Management Committee (NNTMC) and Ngarrindjeri Tendi (NT).

Wallis, L.A. 2005 Possibilities for Dating Burials and Shell Middens at the Coorong. Confidential unpublished report prepared for the Ngarrindjeri Heritage Committee.

Wallis, L.A. 2004 Interim Report to AIATSIS, October 2004: Archaeological investigations on Bora Station, Northwest Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra.

Wallis, L.A. 2004 Cultural Heritage Survey of MDL365, Pentland, North Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for Xstrata Coal and the Kudjala Jirandali Traditional Owners.

Wallis, L.A. 2004 Cultural heritage survey of the Sandy Creek exploration area, northwest Queensland (including MLA90122 and MLA90123). Unpublished report prepared for Strategic Minerals and the Woolgar Native Title Claimant Group.

Wallis, L.A. 2004 What Do Archaeologists Do? Investigating Aboriginal Cultural Heritage in Northwest Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for the Woolgar Valley Aboriginal Corporation.

Paton, R., L.A. Wallis and W. Shawcross 2003 Aboriginal Site Survey and Training Project 2003. Unpublished manual prepared for an ACT Heritage Grants Program, Canberra.

Wallis, L.A. 2003 Archaeological Investigations in Wanamara Country, Northwest Queensland, Aug-Oct 2002. Unpublished report prepared for the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra and Woolgar Valley Aboriginal Corporation.

Wallis, L.A. 2003 Cultural Heritage Issues in MLA90122 and MLA90123, Middle Park Station, Northwest Queensland. Unpublished report prepared for the Central Queensland Land Council and Woolgar Native Title Claimant Group.

Wallis, L.A. 2003 The Impact of Fires on Aboriginal Rockshelter Sites in Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve. Unpublished report prepared for Environment ACT.

Wallis, L.A. and A. Carey 2003 The Impact of Fires on Aboriginal Rock Art Sites in Namadgi National Park. Unpublished report prepared for Environment ACT.

Wallis, L.A. 2000 Preliminary Report on a Pilot Study of Phytoliths Recovered from Pleistocene Lake Brachina, Flinders Ranges. Unpublished report prepared for Martin Williams (University of Adelaide).

Wallis, L.A. 2000 Preliminary Examination of Phytoliths Recovered from Wolfe Creek Crater, Northwest Australia. Unpublished report prepared for Gif Miller (University of Colorado) and John Magee (ANU).

Wallis, L.A. 1998 Preliminary Analysis of Phytoliths from the Archaeological Site of Navatu 17A, Viti Levu, Fiji. Unpublished report prepared for Geoff Clark (ANU).

Unpublished Theses

Wallis, L.A. 2000 Phytoliths, Late Quaternary Environment and Archaeology in Tropical Semi-arid Northwest Australia. Unpublished PhD theses, Department of Archaeology and Natural History, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra.

As a consequence of poor preservation and a lack of depositional sites, palaeoecological records are almost entirely nonexistent for the tropical semi-arid region of northwestern Australia. Subsequently, our knowledge relating to late Quaternary environments and the interrelationship between people and the northwest landscape is impoverished. This theses presents the results of investigations of phytoliths in archaeological and other late Quaternary sediments in the Kimberley region as a means of partially rectifying this problem. Three specific research goals were addressed. Firstly, to examine the nature of phytolith production in extant Kimberley flora. Secondly, to examine the nature of phytolith assemblages preserved in non-archaeological sediments. Finally, to apply the derived knowledge to the study of prehistoric plant exploitation and palaeoenvironment at an archaeological site.

In order to examine aspects of variability in phytolith production by modern plants, a comparative reference collection of 338 specimens (representing 54 families) was constructed. This revealed a range of patterns, from a total absence of phytoliths through to the production of massive quantities, across both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. At the family level these results are largely in line with those from similar studies conducted elsewhere. Sufficient morphological variation has been demonstrated to exist to enable the use of phytoliths as a microfossil system for broad-level vegetation reconstruction in the savannah regions of northern Australia. Whether phytoliths provide a sufficient level of detail to address specific archaeological research questions is an issue that requires further investigation. A number of important economic plants in the Kimberley have been shown to produce distinctive phytoliths, however, in many more phytoliths are absent, or only redundant types are produced.

Following the baseline floristic study the focus of the research then shifted to the analysis of phytoliths recovered from modern sediments associated with a range of different ecological and vegetational settings. The results indicate there is a degree of homogeneity between samples, reflecting the dominance of grasses in most vegetation communities of the Kimberley. However, a more positive outcome is that it is possible to identify a number of distinct vegetation communities and environments on the basis of their associated sedimentary microfossil assemblages. Additionally, the examination of phytoliths from a small number of mud nests and tufa formations demonstrates the potential of such novel sediment sources to serve as chronological and environmental data traps in this region.

The application of phytolith analysis to an archaeological study site completed the study. Carpenter’s Gap 1 is a rockshelter located along the Napier Range in the inland southwest Kimberley, with an occupation sequence spanning ca. 43,000 years. A detailed assessment of the formation processes at the site suggests the phytolith assemblage contained therein comprises primarily of two components, a largely naturally derived grass element and a predominantly culturally derived non-grass element. The phytolith record is interpreted as indicating that significant changes have occurred in both the local vegetation, and people’s behaviours, throughout the period of occupation of the site. The presence of certain grass and palm phytoliths at the base of the site suggests there had been a greater availability of water in the landscape ca. 43,000 BP. By 34,000 BP the local grassland vegetation had apparently shifted to a spinifex dominated community, probably as a result of increasing aridity. Additionally, by the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum palms had disappeared from the sequence, providing further evidence of decreased precipitation in the site vicinity. However, despite the wider climatic and vegetation shifts, the presence of vine thicket type phytoliths throughout the sequence indicates the maintenance of such communities along the range at all times until at least 17,000 BP, although the extent of these patches cannot be gauged. These vine thicket patches would have provided a valuable focus for Aboriginal plant exploitation activities, as would have (semi-) permanent water sources represented by Cyperaceae type phytoliths. The occurrence of substantial quantities of sponge spicules and diatoms in the LGM levels of the site are interpreted as representing a need of people to transport water to the site in response to environmental stress associated with increased glacial aridity. The evidence from the archaeological phytolith analysis was examined within the wider regional context and found to fit reasonably well with the other evidence for vegetational and climatic change in the area.

Overall, the study has demonstrated the suitability of phytolith analysis to questions of palaeoenvironmental interest in the tropical semi-arid areas of northern Australia. The application of the technique to Carpenter’s Gap 1 further demonstrates the potential of the approach in the archaeological discipline, providing researchers with glimpses into aspects of human plant exploitation. However, much remains to be discovered about the usefulness of phytolith analysis for addressing specific research questions in Australian archaeology and broader issues in palaeoenvironmental studies, and this theses serves as a basis for such future studies in the region.

Wallis, L.A. 1994 A Residue Analysis of Artefacts from Widgingarri Shelter 2, Western Kimberley, Western Australia. Unpublished BSc (Hons) theses, Centre for Archaeology, University of Western Australia, Perth.

This project set out to examine the question of artefact functions and to determine if they could be related to environment, resources and technology using the site of Widgingarri Shelter 2 in the western Kimberley, Western Australia, as a case study. Residue analysis was selected as the means by which function would attempt to be determined, since it had been successfully applied to other sites in Australia and as David (1993) had advocated it as a suitable technique to discern the function of debitage (i.e. unretouched flakes)

Three specific aims were formulated:

To determine the function of non-formal artefacts;
To determine the function of the points; and,
To examine artefact variability through time in relation to the changing environment, resource availability and technology.

A program of investigation involving high and low powered microscopy, IKI fume testing, staining, hemastix testing and immunoglobin assays was carried out in order to address these aims.

The results from this study indicated that the non-formal artefacts (i.e. mostly debitage) did possess a high suitability for examination by the techniques of residue analysis in order to ascertain function. The residues on these artefacts suggested they were involved in a range of tasks, including woody and starchy plant working. There were no signs of these artefacts having been involved in animal processing activities, despite there being a wide variety of faunal remains preserved at the site.

Interestingly, neither did the stone points in the assemblage retain evidence of animal-related residues, such as blood or collagen. While this provides tentative evidence to suggest points may have functioned as multi-purpose tools in the past in Australia, the issue requires further investigation, involving the study of a larger sample of points from a wider variety of site types and locations.

Despite the changes in environment, available resources and technology through time, there appeared to be little variation in artefact function temporally. This corresponds with the findings of O'Connor (1990) based on debitage analysis, which similarly showed that the artefact assemblage at Widgingarri displayed very little morphological variation through time. It was thought that the introduction of shell as a raw material for adzing might have resulted in a decrease in the number of stone artefacts used for wood working during the Holocene levels of the site, however this proved not to be the case; in fact, there appeared to be an increase in wood working at the site in the Holocene. As the increase in wood working appeared to occur around 7500 BP, approximately 3000 years before points were introduced, it was suggested it was not related to the introduction of point technology. It may, however, be related to the changed position of the site relative to the present sea level stand.

In light of the results obtained, the value of the IKI fume test when applied to artefacts that have been handled at any time during or after recovery is questioned.

Although this study has gone some way towards investigating the relationships between people and changing environments, resources and technology, it has only been on a very small sample and much work remains to be done. It is suggested that determination of plant species targeted through comparisons of starch grains with reference collections, and resin identification through chromatography, may help to further indicate if behaviours changed in response to other variables. The issue of the function of points needs to be further addressed, and this study has demonstrated that residue analysis has the potential to do this.